Interest income and expenses

Accounting policies

Interest income and expenses comprise interest, including premiums and discounts in respect of financial instruments measured at amortized cost and instruments at fair value. Interest income include interest income on hedging derivatives. Interest income and expenses also include fees and commissions received and paid, which are deferred using the effective interest rate and which are taken into account in the measurement of the financial instrument.

Interest income and interest expenses are recognized on an accruals basis using the effective interest rate method that discounts estimated future cash inflows and payments made over the expected life of the financial instrument or, when appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount of the financial asset or liability. Calculation of the effective interest rate includes all commissions paid and received by parties to an agreement, transaction costs and all other premiums and discounts constituting an integral part of the effective interest rate.

Interest income in the case of financial assets or a group of similar financial assets for which an impairment allowance was recognized is calculated on the basis of the current values of receivables (i.e. net of the impairment allowance) by using the current interest rate used for discounting future cash flows for the purposes of estimating impairment losses.

The effect of the fair value measurement of financial assets acquired as part of business combinations between subsidiaries is also recognized in interest income.

Interest and expenses resulting from sales of insurance products linked to loans and advances.

Due to the fact that the Group offers insurance products along with loans, advances and lease products and there is no possibility of purchasing from the Group an insurance product that is identical as to the legal form, conditions and economic content without purchasing a loan, an advance or a lease product, the payments received by the Group for the insurance products sold are treated as an integral part of the remuneration for the financial instruments offered.

Remuneration received and receivable by the Group for offering insurance products for the products directly associated with the financial instruments is settled using the effective interest rate method and recognized in interest income. Remuneration is recognized in commission income upon sale or renewal of an insurance product only in the part relating to the intermediation service provided. .

Remuneration is divided into the commission portion and the interest portion based on the proportion of the fair value of the financial instrument and the fair value of the intermediation service to the sum of these two values, in accordance with the relative fair value model comprising a range of different parameters, including the average effective interest rate on the financial instrument, the average contractual and economic (actual) lending or lease period, the average insurance premium amount, the term of the insurance policy, the independent insurance agent's commission. Measurement of the fair value of a financial instrument is based on the income-based approach, involving the conversion of future cash flows to their present value using a discount rate consisting of a risk-free rate determined in relation to the average yield on 5-year and 10-year bonds in the past year, the risk premium determined in relation to the annual costs of credit risk and exceeding the credit risk premium, which reflects all other factors that the market participants would take into account in the fair value measurement under the current circumstances.

On the other hand, the fair value of the insurance intermediation service is measured in accordance with the market approach, which is based on prices and other information generated by identical or comparable market transactions.

Costs directly related to the sale of insurance products are settled in a similar manner to the settlement of revenues, i.e. as part of the amortized cost of a financial instrument or on a one-off basis.

The Group makes periodical estimations of the remuneration amount that will be recoverable in the future due to the early termination of the insurance contract based on historical data on premiums collected and refunds made. The provision for future refunds is allocated to the financial instrument and insurance service in accordance with the relative fair value model.

The Group verifies the correctness of the parameters used in the relative fair value model and the ratio of the provision for refunds each time it learns about significant changes in this respect, not less frequently, however, than once a year.

Financial information

loans to and other receivables from banks136122
loans and advances to customers, of which:9 1828 363
on impaired loans270278
investment securities1 045840
hedging derivatives322340
financial assets designated at fair value through profit or loss upon initial recognition191226
financial assets held for trading, excluding derivative financial instruments4269
Total10 9199 965

amounts due to banks(136)(102)
amounts due to customers(1 623)(1 577)
debt securities in issue and subordinated liabilities(464)(395)
available-for-sale debt securities(69)(79)
financial assets held for trading, excluding derivative financial instruments(11)(33)
financial assets designated at fair value through profit or loss upon initial recognition(10)(24)
Total(2 313)(2 210)